Monday, May 25, 2020
The United States is known for its many liberties to all, liberties that lead to all sorts of bad according to Socrates and Aristotle. Plato-Socrates in The Republic and Aristotle in Politics criticize democracy, a form of government that tries to equalize all. Centuries have passed and many of the democratic elements described in their works apply to current democratic regimes in particular the United States. Socrates believes that democracy is the second worst type of government. Democracy is having Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦complete freedom and dignity.Ã¢â¬ (p.261 C5) and Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦no notice of the law.Ã¢â¬ (p.261 D5) It is the avoidance of anyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s control. Those in democracy are motivated simply by pleasure that accompanied freedom and dignity. There is an analogy in theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Aristotle says that justice is thought of as equality among all, there is a disregard to merit (p.172). In a society, there is usually more poor people and because there is this demand of equality then the majority rule (p.174). Mob rule is then authoritative. All governments have their forms, which are good and are bad. Democracy to Aristotle is not the best regime because it is ruled by the poor or the ones that need from the government. Government is not chosen by those who pursue virtue, but instead pursue wealth. The democratic principle is that of freedom, wealth, and birth. Not virtue. He believes the best regime would not be exactly a democracy but a polity that would be a combination of freedom, wealth, birth and virtue. The best regime has ideal conditions in which it becomes a predictable regime and consists of values, choices, the inanimate, elements of the class of workers, and the education of rulers. Democracy has a big defect in that it does not have intelligence or wisdom. It is the rule of many. It is based on the idea of happiness by following pleasures (p.48). Democracy comes into play when the majority revolt against the oligarchy because of the ideas of freedom. The problem with it is that people are pursuing their pleasures, not thinking of the state as a whole. There is unity based on pleasure. Before long, everyone is pursuing their own pleasures and there is an undermining of authorityShow MoreRelatedPolitical Philosophy, By Steven Cahn1197 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn Steven Cahn s book, Political Philosophy, The Essential Texts, philosoph ers such as Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau created the circumstances to enable the fundamental principals of philosophy and politics. These knowledgeable, astute and significant men have helped to achieve the structure of our past and present democracy as well as a plan of action for the rights and values that we as citizens can all relate to today. They are grounded in their thinking and tied togetherRead MoreComparing Aristotle s 8 1455 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesgovernment. In book 8 Socrates starts to wrap up his depiction of a just city. He starts to break down the four unjust constitutions of the city and man. Timocracy, which is represented by the honor-driven man who resembles and rules that sort of government. There is an oligarchy, ruled by a man driven by his necessary appetites. Democracy, in which the man is controlled by unnecessary appetites. And finally there is tyranny, which the man is driven by unlawful appetites. Socrates towards the end ofRea d MoreComparing The And The Odyssey998 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesstability and conformity. Athens acted as free people and had a true democracy and was eager to learn new ideas. On the other hand the Spartans created little art and militaristically driven. Both were strong city-states but had different views and ideas on how daily life should be carried out. 4. The Greeks idea of a democracy was that all male citizens (1/5 of the population) could have a say. The Athenian political system was a democracy because any class could propose a new law or be involved in theRead MoreGreek Philosophers Bible On The Ancient World And English I2969 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesSpring 2015 Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle s early lives affected their careers and Greek society, and their deaths and works of literature affected today s society. Socrates started out as a stone mason who eventually devoted most of his time to philosophy. Socrates works of literature reflect his world views and opinions. These opinions had a fatal consequence; he was persecuted for corrupting the youth of Athens. Socrates was Plato s teacher and instructor. Plato usedRead MoreComparing Aristotle and Plato Essays1325 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesComparing Aristotle and Plato Aristotle argues that in order for a polis to emerge, a union between man and women must convene. Later a household must be introduced which unites with other households to form a village, villages come together to form city-states. This theory is AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s natural view that an individual can not be self sufficient Plato argues that, in order to achieve absolute justice, a city-state is needed. In The Republic, Plato builds around the idea of Philosopher RulersRead MoreGreece s Impact On The World1360 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesto start itÃ¢â¬â¢s first direct democracy, philosophers set up the foundation on how to think, and great minds who discovered the basics of Science and Math to medicine and astronomy emerged from Greece. When the United States of America finally declared their independance from Britain, there was order needed. In result to the Ã¢â¬Å"breakupÃ¢â¬ between Britain, the first order of government in the United States was influenced by the Athens- the cradle of democracy. Ancient democracy was constructed in AthensRead MoreSocrates And Plato s Views On The Society1308 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Socrates had different views from the Athenians. He believed that democracy wouldn t work in their society, nor in any society. He doesn t believe that the people are capable of governing themselves. Socrates and Plato believed that the common man was too stupid, to say the least, to govern him/herself and to have a say in society. Socrates was in pursuit or truth his entire life. In his eyes, how could he let someone have the capabilities to make their own decisions with the potential for anRead MoreThe Socratic Problem Of Socrates1462 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSocrates was born in 469 B.C.E., in Athen s, Greece. He was a loyal citizen of Athens who also served as a soldier as required for Athens males. His philosophy, or as it was called, his Socratic Method, laid the stones for what became to be known as Western philosophy. However, Socrates remains one of the most powerful, yet misunderstood and enigmatic figures of philosophy. What is known about Socrates comes from writings of other philosophers, such as his follower Plato, and PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s student, AristotleRead MoreHistorical Events That Took Place During The Classical Period1458 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWorld Literature I Historically Significant Influences of Aristotle During the Classical Period, 500-232 BCE, Greece was at the peak of its political and cultural achievement. This was also a time of war, most noteworthy being the vast empire created by Alexander the Great. In a period containing such an immense amount of historical significance there is no doubting that it had influenced the people born. Notorious philosopher Aristotle is no exception, contributing a great deal to the fields ofRead MorePlato s Ideal State1919 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesPlato in this part of our presentation, we take a look at another important part of the teachings of Plato s ideal state in particular and the political views of Plato, in general. Plato s ideal state - a speculative concept, which takes place in comparison with other types of which Plato also describes. First of all, we mean the four imperfect form of the state - timocracy, oligarchy, democracy and tyranny. Also in this context, it is advisable to consider utopian aristocratic republic, described
Thursday, May 14, 2020
The underlying need-structure of the individual is what motivates his behavior in various leadership situations. Leadership style thus refers to the consistency of goals or needs at different situations (Fred Fiedler, 1967). One major individual from history that, in his lifetime fulfilled the above quote is the former South African president, Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, commonly known as Nelson Mandela. Mandela has been described as one of the most influential figures in the fight for freedom and equality in South Africa. Mandela was born in 1918. His farther, Henry Mandela, was a tribal chief of Tembu. At the time South Africa was ruled by white minority, Mandela helped to unite South Africa as it dismantled apartheid, the cruel system of white minority rule. He symbolized for all of Africa a commitment to democracy and freedom. For effective transformative education and transformative leadership, a sympathetic position must be taken (Preece, 2013). Mandela demonstrated this thought his life time as he was not only sympathetic to African indigenous values, but also able to see that taking the same approach as his adversaryÃ¢â¬â¢s was not going to help further his cause, this is seen through his encouragement of his followers to seek education to better their situations not violence. Through out the 1940s and 1950s Mandela witnessed and was frequently victim to frequently subject to detention, police harassments, and banning.In 1962 Mandela was sentenced for five years ofShow MoreRelatedNelson Mandela, Harriet Tubman, And Patrisse Cullors1500 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCivil Rights- noun: the rights of citizens to political and social freedom and equality. Nelson Mandela, Harriet Tubman, and Patrisse Cullors all share one common trait: civil rights and protecting the freedom of others. Nelson Mandela fought for freedom against the apartheid in South Africa, and was a philanthropist who served as President in South Africa. Harriet Tubman was abolitionist, armed scout and spy, who helped hundreds of slaves escape through the Underground Railroad during the CivilRead MoreGke 1 Task 21300 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesNelson Mandela was known as a world leader for his role in fighting apartheid and being the first multi-racial president of South Africa. His presidency created a s ignificant change in the perception and building of a multiracial society in South Africa and around the world. Nelson Mandela was also known to be a leader of a civil rights organization known as the African National Congress. The purpose of the African National Congress was to demolish racial segregation and discrimination. The two mostRead MoreNelson Mandelas Fight for Freedom1646 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesbecause of the pigment in your skin. For Nelson Mandela, this situation was a reality. This style of living began in 1948 and, thanks to Mandela, ended in 1994. Problems began when the National Party---dominated by Afrikaans-speaking descendants of the Dutch settlersÃ¢â¬âcame to power in South Africa. Segregation and mistreatment of the less superiorÃ¢â¬ânon-whites--became a government policy called Ã¢â¬Å"apartheid,Ã¢â¬ which means Ã¢â¬Å"apartnessÃ¢â¬ in the Afrikaans language. Nelson Mandela refused to bow down to the unjustRead MoreThe Bravery of Nelson Mandela1431 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Ã¢â¬Å"For to be free is not merely to cast off oneÃ¢â¬â¢s chains, but to live in a way that respects and enhances the freedom of othersÃ¢â¬ (Newsone.com, 2011). Bravery is a phrase topped up with numerous connotations. Bravery is to stand your ground and gaze worry in the face and overcome the unrealistic. One will not face their fears or display anyone can be a champion, but it is the brave and audacious hearted actions of an individual that divides them from other amateurs that cannot fit the recount. NotRead MoreLeaders for Social and Political Change1007 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageshatred, and racism, as well as personal and political struggles. From the many injustices our predecessors have overcome, leaders have emerged. Individuals who will forever be revered by millions and will hopefully continue to inspire our youth. Nelson Mandela and Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. are two leaders that have greatly impacted not only their country, but the world. Both of these leaders h ad a significant impact on the people of their cause, both in a political aspect as well as for socialRead MoreThe Legacy Of Nelson Mandela1377 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesto the succeeding generations. Nelson Mandela is among these few charismatic leaders, who spent his entire life for his unquenchable thirst for freedom and human rights. His life was a consistent battle; battle against inequality, racism, peace and democracy. His perseverance and indomitable spirit helped him to attain his goal and his noble mission of spreading equality and establishing human rights. The contemporary situation was not at all favourable for him. Nelson MandelaÃ¢â¬â¢s entire life is theRead MoreMahatma Gandhi And Nelson Mandela1447 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIf Mahatma Gandhi never inspired Nelson Mandela to fulfill his vision for human rights, would Nelson Mandela have inspired Barack Obama to continue that legacy? Mahatma Gandhi practiced civil disobedience and lobbied for the rights of Indians in South A frica and India. Nelson Mandela hungered and fought for a South Africa, where all races were equal and unified as nationalists. Barack Obama sought to build a more tolerant United States through his historic presidency, immigration policies, andRead MoreNelson Mandela s Legacy Of The Black People Of South Africa1567 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesNelson Mandela was a leader in every aspect for the black people of South Africa from the minute he was born to the minute he died. While Nelson Mandela was on trial for sabotage, [a crime that he did not actually commit] he said these words that defined his legacy until the day that he died, Ã¢â¬Å"During my lifetime I have dedicated myself to this struggle of the African people. I have fought against white domination, and I have fought against black domination. I have cherished the ideal of a democraticRead MoreThe Importance Of The Civil Rights Movement1692 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"In giving freedom to the slave, we assure freedom to the f ree -- honorable alike in what we give, and what we preserve. We shall nobly save, or meanly lose, the last best, hope of earth.Ã¢â¬ -Abraham Lincoln. The United States have been through numerous community changes that occurred and altered the history. The Civil Rights Movement of the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s was one of the most significant and important for the equality of all people and their free rights. Since the ending of slavery in 1863, there had been aRead MoreLong Walk And Freedom By Robert Nelson Mandela1110 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Long Walk to Freedom, released in 1995, is a biographical story about the revolutionary and former South African President Nelson Mandela. The book narrates how Mandela becomes a remarkable leader in the construction of a democratic South Africa. It chronicles his early life, growing up, education and his 27 years in prison before becoming President and working to rebuild the country s segregated society. Mandela begins his book with a description of his ancestry and later goes on to talk about
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The Admired Leader In this paper, a leader that is admired by many will be analyzed, and identify leadership characteristics. In the paper, Leadership qualities will be discussed that contributed to his or her success. The studentÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership style will be evaluated and explained. Express the ideas and thoughts of how to improve the effectiveness as a leader, and discuss the work with a mentor. Charismatic Leader President Ronald Reagan a Military Officer, an actor, and the Governor of California, and the President of the United States. President Reagan was a Messenger the people liked, he seemed out of the ordinary, and the people felt that he was a hero or had hero qualities. President ReaganÃ¢â¬â¢s charisma gave him the power to express his vision to the people and they believed it because he was likable and spoke with conviction. To be a good leader, you must start with yourself, he did not Micromanage; He believed in balance, and he believed in letting his people do their jobs and treated them with respect. President Reagan created a positive work environment in a high-stress position, his personality, values, and morals were solid and he was not a prisoner of his perceptions (Meese, 2011). Characteristics President Reagan had many qualities, and characteristics he was optimistic, articulate, Intelligent, well mannered, honest, friendly, and charismatic. The thing is he treated people well because he truly likes people and interacting with them. He ruled with commonShow MoreRelatedOrganizational Culture And Leadership Of A Team981 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagessome positive or a negative opinion about their leader. The organizational culture and role of a leader in a team go hand in hand to accomplish the goal of the organization and extract the potential of every employee in that organization. Therefore, it is essential for an organization of any size to have a positive organizational culture and select team leaders that can lead its employees. In a general sense of a corporate organization, a team-leader is the person to whom everyone in your team reportsRead MoreEssay on William Wilberforce: a Biography1103 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages 1 Discover on Your Own William Wilberforce, Biography Concordia University EDGR 506 Character and Ethics of Leadership Instructor July 1, 2013 Discover On Your Own 2 Week 3 - Discover on Your Own 1. The 4 Ã¢â¬â 5 qualities in my leader I most admired wereÃ¢â¬ ¦. Prior to taking this class I had heard the name Wilberforce in the saying, Ã¢â¬Å"DonÃ¢â¬â¢t be a Wilberforce!Ã¢â¬ . The saying did not have a good connotationRead MoreThe Philosophy Of Leadership And Leadership914 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages1. Leadership is defined on Merriam-Webster.com as Ã¢â¬Å"the power or ability to lead other peopleÃ¢â¬ . This definition is weak at best. Throughout my career, I have witnessed this form of leadership applying control of power, simply leading by giving direction, guidelines and instruction. There never seemed to be any care for if they were actually inspiring the next generation to follow in their footsteps. This seems counterproductive at best. In my experience, I have found that I always worked harderRead MoreThe Dark Night : The And Chief Of Police1340 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Dark Night has multiple leaders that are powerful in different ways. Batman, while being the main character is not the one leader in the movie, but instead works with others and other leaders to help keep Gotham safe. The leaders I identified are Batman, Joker, and the chief of police, Gordon. Together and against they lead very different groups of people. In this paper I will be examining how each identified leader exhibits multiple sources of power. In the fifth chapter the authors definesRead MoreAmazon And Starbucks Management Systems849 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesand contrasting Amazon and Starbucks management systems and how they support innovation. In addition, pros and cons of their management system will be addressed to determine their leadership and cultural differences. Overarching Leadership Common leadership traits of both Amazon and Starbucks successful and admired fortune 500 companies are their ability to adapt creatively and effectively to challenges and change. Strong and active coping skills is how they recover from setbacks, are openRead MoreA Leader, The Basketball Star For The Cleveland Cavaliers Essay1174 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesGrowing up I was always told to be a leader and not a follower, and as a child I did not think much of that saying. However, in recent years I have begun to grasp what it truly means to be a leader. A leader is someone who brings several people together to accomplish a common goal. A leader possesses the motivation and determination to achieve the said goal. It is easy to recognize a leader like LeBron James, the basketball star for the Cleveland Cavaliers, or JT Barrett, the starting quarterbackRead More Organzational Leadership Essays1653 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesin the environment, which has caused them to reevaluate how they do business. Economic changes, globalization, and expansions in technology have warranted the need to adapt quickly to changes in the environment (Schneider, 2002). Organizational leadership has three general components: setting the direction for the organization, organizational performance, and change management (Johnson, 2011). It is critical for organizations to position themselves in this competitive market for success. To maintainRead MoreWho Is The Best Solution?1105 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthese rules and regulations are implemented by great visionaries called leaders. It is important for an individual to keep an open mind when implementing such laws. It is evaluating both sides of the argument to come into an agreement for the best solution. Visionaries thrive to inspire and gain the trust of society by not only considering solutions for the present, but avoiding potential threats for the future. Trustworthy leaders ensure confidence and security in order to reach a common goal. ThereRead MoreConvergys Code of Business Conduct1397 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCompany Philosophy Vision: Convergys is the leader in relationship management. They provide innovative solutions that drive more value from their clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ everyday relationships with their customers and employees. Convergys is acknowledged as a world leader that enables organizations everywhere to enhance the value of their relationships through excellent and efficient outsourcing programs. Convergys provides their clients with new perspectives and solutions to their existing and future relationshipsRead MoreLeadership And Leadership Practices And Expectations958 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesit takes to become an effective leader. The researchers wanted to know how ordinary men and women practiced their skills while they were in leadership. The analysis consisted of surveys that covered thousands of cases over a few years. The research revealed consistent leadership practices and expectations. Research has shown that leadership can be learned, and there are ten basic lessons on what it When you ask most people how they became great leaders, they say Ã¢â¬Å"trial and error.Ã¢â¬ It
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss About The Revisiting Family Involvement On Corporate? Answer: Introduction The different accounting theories efficiently lay down the set of methodologies and assumptions that are utilized for the preparation of a proper financial report. There are various accounting theories that have efficiently guided the preparation of the financial reports. These accounting theories have been modified over time in order to suit the current requirements of the corporate entities and other stakeholders of business. The journal that has been chosen in this particular study is, Behavioral Agency Theory: New Foundations for Theorizing about Executive Compensation by Alexander Pepper and Julie Gore. Journal review Behavioral Agency theory The Agency theory is an important economic theory that is utilized by the firms as the required principles for preparing the financial reports. The agency theory that has been proposed by this paper promotes the new concept in regards to this particular theory that is, behavioral agency theory. The behavioral agency theory pivots around the factors like the performance of the agent and motivation of the employees in regards to the work. This theory further states that the demands of the individuals holding the shares of an organization and the respective agents can only be aligned when the management of the organization has provided enough motivation to its employees by making the optimum utilization of the available opportunities. The behavioral agency theory has been established upon those four foundations that have been identified as the crucial factors that affect the stakeholder behavior (Bosse Phillips, 2016). These four foundations are as follows: Aversion of loss and dependence on reference Temporal discounting Fairness and inequity aversion The particular journal that has been chosen, also leads to an introduction of the goal-setting theory in regards to the agency model based on the grounds of a practical contract between the agent and the principal (Cui, 2017). Positive Agency Theory The positive agency theory points out traditional outlook of the agency theory. This means that the positive agency theory evidently assumes that the primary aim of the corporate entities is to seek profit while the agents are both rational in nature and seeks rent. Furthermore, the positive agency theory also takes into assumption that the principals that form one of the major elements in the theory to be neutral of risks. This is due to the fact that the principals can balance their portfolio. The agents on the other hand are exposed to the risks, this is because the potential effects of wealth in regards to the employment relationship are significant (Madison caes et al, 2016). Behavioral Agency Theory The journal lists out the primary differences between the positive agency theory and the behavioral agency theory. The positive agency theory puts less stress on the organizational objective to motivate the agents so that the optimum performance abilities of the employees can be achieved. The behavioral agency theory on the other hand, proposes that the maximization of the performance of the agents should in all probabilities be one of the major objectives of the organization. Furthermore, the agency theory suggests that the linkage existing in the agent and the principal should reflect the efficiency of the organization. However, the behavioral agency theory moves away from the analytical structure set by the traditional agency theory in respect of the three major points. Firstly, the positive agency theory puts stress on the agency costs that rise due to a misbalanced relationship between the agent and the principal. The behavioral agency theory on the other hand stresses on the li nk between the costs that rise due to the agency problem and work related performance by measuring them on the basis of efficiency and effectiveness. Moreover, the behavioral agency theory proposes a softer approach to the agency problem in comparison to positive agency theory. Lastly, the behavioral agency theory indicates a much complicated function that is essentially based upon the effort put forth by the employees that is exposed to risk, loss and aversion in regards to uncertainty while the positive agency theory suggests a linear relationship between motivation and pay (Pepper Gore, 2015). Conclusion The behavioral agency theory comprises of four sectors that aims to explain the particulars of the theory in a detailed way (Pepper Gore, 2015). The first sector explains the particular way in which the link between the performances by a particular employee with the motivation provided has been explained. Secondly, the relationship between compensation and agent motivation has been explained. The third sector constitutes of the explanation of the factors like the inclusion of time discounting in this particular theory. Lastly, the differences between the intrinsic and the extrinsic motivation and the identification of the potential tradeoff between the two have been aimed to justify by the behavioral agency theory. This particular journal article has provided an improved understanding in regards to the sources or basis of foundation and further developments of the agency theory especially the part where it is applicable to the compensation to the executives. References Bosse, D. A., Phillips, R. A. (2016). Agency theory and bounded self-interest. Academy of Management Review, 41(2), 276-297. Cui, V., Ding, S., Liu, M., Wu, Z. (2017). Revisiting the Effect of Family Involvement on Corporate Social Responsibility: A Behavioral Agency Perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 1-19. Madison, K., Holt, D. T., Kellermanns, F. W., Ranft, A. L. (2016). Viewing family firm behavior and governance through the lens of agency and stewardship theories. Family Business Review, 29(1), 65-93. Montano, D. E., Kasprzyk, D. (2015). Theory of reasoned action, theory of planned behavior, and the integrated behavioral model. Health behavior: Theory, research and practice, 95-124. Pepper, A., Gore, J. (2015). Behavioral agency theory: New foundations for theorizing about executive compensation. Journal of management, 41(4), 1045-1068. Shogren, K. A., Wehmeyer, M. L., Palmer, S. B., Forber-Pratt, A. J., Little, T. J., Lopez, S. (2015). Causal agency theory: Reconceptualizing a functional model of self-determination. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 251-263.
Saturday, April 11, 2020
In a world with numerous and various types of occupations, it is often difficult to measure the importance of each profession monetarily. Each person, society and organization has a different perspective on the significance of certain occupations but it seems that cross-culturally there is a common belief that professional athletes are extremely overpaid. Professional athletes worldwide are often questioned regarding their controversially large amount of pay. Taking into consideration the amount of workload and pressure most professional athletes deal with, it can be justified that they deserve the amount of money they make, showing that they are not overpaid. Firstly, consumers are willing to pay the athletes large amounts of money and also, they do not use taxpayerÃ¢â¬â¢s money. Professional athletes earn an appropriate amount of money in regards to their occupation and this should not come under criticism by the public. Consumers are willing to pay billions and billions of dollars (repetition) yearly to show their passion and dedication towards their favorite sports teams. We will write a custom essay sample on Athletes not overpaid or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Many people pay for overpriced tickets and merchandise just to support their team, and will, however complain about the huge paychecks the athleteÃ¢â¬â¢s cash in at the end of the day. As long as consumers continue paying that much money for merchandise (alliteration) and games, the teams will continue making a lot of money and consequently the players will make even more. As a fan of the Chicago Bulls, a multi-million dollar franchise, I have spent a Dhatt 2 lot of money on my favorite playerÃ¢â¬â¢s jerseys, shoes, posters and game tickets. A lot more money than IÃ¢â¬â¢d like to admit. The professional athletes are not to blame. Consumers continue to spend money like water (simile) and then proceed to accuse the athletes of having huge lump sums of cash. We as consumers have gladly given up our money to show our support towards a specific team. The consumers are more than willing to pay for overpriced merchandise; therefore the professional athletes are entitled to the money. (Paragraph: narration). The most common issue the public has is the large earnings of professional athletes. There is always great controversy over how much athletes are paid. People say doctors, nurses, teachers and police officers should be paid more as they benefit society. If that is the case, people should be prepared to pay higher taxes as we do pay for their wages. The money athletes make is a whole other ball game (metaphor), as we do not fund their games as taxpayers, the multi million-dollar corporations and big CEOÃ¢â¬â¢s do and they do not seem to have a problem with paying their athletes millions of dollars every season. So why should we? (Rhetorical question). The reality is, if LeBron James took a huge cut in his paycheck, no nurse or doctor or public service man would benefit. The same people do not pay them. The government and taxpayers do not fund professional athletes. The money spent on the teams is the ownerÃ¢â¬â¢s money with which they can do whatever they would like. Members of the public should not criticize the professional athletes, as they do not use taxpayer money to pay their own bills. (Paragraph: Cause and Effect). Dhatt 3 Professional athletes earn an appropriate amount of money in regards to their occupation and this should not come under criticism by the public. Consumers gladly pay a lot of money to support their favorite teams. Also, people should not be concerned with the paychecks of professional athleteÃ¢â¬â¢s, as taxpayer money is not used to fund them. Athletes are not overpaid. One has to consider the constant pressure and hard work they put in to be the best. From a young age many people aspire to become athletes, as the passion drives them rather than the money. Money is not relevant therefore they should not be criticized for it.
Tuesday, March 10, 2020
Royal Air Force Essays Royal Air Force Paper Royal Air Force Paper This quote from Bennis (cited in Hooper Potter 2000) goes to the heart of the current debate about Leadership and explains, in part, why so many people are discovering that it is difficult to be an effective leader. There are numerous leadership models espoused by various individuals and organisations, from politicians to academics, multi-national conglomerates to military organisations. They have various threads that inter-weave and draw from each other, quite often overlapping, all have there limitations and criticisms. The Transformational Leadership Model is just one of them, which developed over a period, within a cohesive environment, not in isolation. Therefore, as will be identified throughout this essay there are strands of transformational leadership in numerous leadership models. Initially, transformational leadership will be defined and then compared against Bass Full Range Leadership Model, this will then be followed by an introduction into military leadership before analysing the Royal Air Forces current leadership attributes against the tenets of transformational leadership. Indeed, whilst the RAFs leadership attributes are fairly recent in their publication, 2007, we will ask ourselves whether previous generations of leaders have displayed the qualities of a transformational leader. For this purpose, an example of an excellent strategic RAF Leader, Air Chief Marshall Sir Arthur Bomber Harris will be evaluated against the Transformational Leadership Model. The first question to answer then is, what is transformational leadership? Burns (1978) proposed that transformational leadership is a relationship of shared stimulation and elevation that converts followers into leaders and may convert leaders into moral agents. Burns concepts were further developed by Bass and Avolio (1994) who suggested that the transactional leader recognises and exploits an existing need or demand of a potential follower (Bass 1998), however, beyond that, the transformational leader looks for potential motives in followers, seeks to satisfy higher needs and engages the full person of the follower. According to Saddler (1997) Transformational Leadership is the process of engaging the commitment of employees in the context of shared values and shared vision that is linked to trust and, according to Bass and Avolio (1990) and Bass (1998), the four tenets of Transformational Leadership are: a. Idealised Influence. The power of a person to have intense effects on a group of followers and is characterised by self-confidence, even when things are going awry, self-determination and an ability to inspire loyalty or as stated by Northouse (1997) provide followers with a vision and a sense of mission. This might otherwise be termed charisma, which brings it close to the traits concept of leadership1. b. Inspirational Motivation. The ability through the leaders actions to lift people beyond their own expectations. It rouses followers to deliver extra effort and inspires a belief in the cause. It creates and communicates a compelling vision of what is required and builds commitment. c. Individualised Consideration. This is the consideration for others that transformational leaders show, in particular, towards their development. This factor is also marked by a willingness to listen, the readiness to delegate and the ability to appreciate a job well done. d. Intellectual Stimulation. Followers are stimulated to think about their own situation and to assess their values and beliefs. They become aware of problems and involved in their own solutions. The paradigm stresses empowerment, with the dominant interest of the leader being to establish the correct climate and support structures so that individuals can achieve organisational goals. In the mid-1980s, Bass expanded and refined the work of Burns (1978) and House (1971) by focussing on the emotional components and origins of charisma, suggesting that charisma is a necessary, but not sufficient requirement for transformational leadership. Bass expanded on his own work in 1990, joining with Avolio in 1994 to combine the transactional, transformational, and non-leadership factors to provide the Full Range Leadership Model (Northouse 1997). This model is the cornerstone of the post-industrial school of leadership (Rost 1993). The non-leadership factor in the model is the laissez-faire (LF) approach, and represents the lack of leadership. The transactional leadership component entails three factors: contingent reward (CR), management-by-exception passive (MBE-P), and management-by-exception active (MBE-A). The CR style is where the leader gains accord regarding accepted performance standards and then provides suitable rewards when the standards are achieved. This provides a strong incentive to followers and is reasonably effective. MBE refers to leadership concerning corrective criticism, negative feedback, and negative reinforcement. MBE-P involves the leader waiting until errors, shortfalls and failures become obvious, then reacting to them. MBE-A involves actively seeking indications of poor performance and taking corrective measures (Bass Avolio 1994). This model is not without its critics. Bolden et al (2004) argued that the concepts of Transactional Leadership (fostered on reciprocity) and Transformational Leadership (concerned with hearts and minds) are ambiguous and ill constructed. Ciulla (1998) pointed out that Burns would find it difficult to accept Hitler as a leader because his theory of transformational leadership is clearly a prescriptive one about the nature of morally good leadership supports his view. In contrast, if one considers Bass (1985) definition of transformational leadership, Hitler clearly qualifies. Therefore, given the discord between the theorists it is hardly surprising that those who are exercised with the practicalities of transformational leadership are finding it difficult. An underlying premise of this leadership theory is that different styles of leadership exist simultaneously within the same individual (Bass, 1985). However, numerous studies (Lowe and Gardner, 2000) demonstrating the impact of these styles of leadership on the attitudes and behaviours of employees have dismissed this proposition and focused solely on the separate effect of each of these styles (Lowe, Kroeck Sivasubramaniam, 1996). Having discussed and critiqued transformational leadership, the next stage is to identify Military Leadership and how it is applied in the RAF. The Defence Leadership Centre (2003) identifies Military Leadership as the projection of personality and character to inspire soldiers, sailors, marines and airmen to carry out what is required of them and more. Proficiency in the techniques of leadership is the foremost quality in the skill of command and contributes significantly to operational accomplishment. There is no prescription of leadership and no prearranged style of leader. Military Leadership is a combination of example, influence and compulsion dependent upon the situation. It is transformational in approach and underpinned by the ethos of Mission Command2 and a balance of military attributes, which will be discussed further later. Successful military leaders are individuals who understand themselves, the organisation, the environment in which they operate and the people that they are privileged to lead, considerable similarities with transformational leadership. Furthermore, Mission Command is split into three levels, Strategic, Operational and Tactical (or Team). This is best explained by viewing the below model. In this model, Strategic Leadership refers to leading a whole organisation with overall accountability for the other 2 levels. At this level, leadership is primarily concerned with vision, purpose or mission, alignment, values and communication. Operational Leadership defined as leading a number of teams, leadership is concerned with the implementation of strategy and issues such as enabling success through the determination of appropriate structures and creation of a climate for success. Tactical (or Team) Leadership refers to leading a single unit and requires the leader to balance the needs of the task, the team and the individual as described by the Functional Leadership model (Adair 1983), which has been the basis of the RAFs leadership training for the last thirty years. These attributes are not exclusive to each the level of leadership to which they are appointed in the model, rather that the relative importance of those attributes changes in relation to the leadership context. Adairs (1983) model is not the only model currently being studied by the RAF Leadership Training Centre, others include, the Tannenbaum Schmitt (1958) model of autocratic and democratic styles; the Mouton-Blake Grid (1964); the Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership model (1988); the Ashridge Management/Leadership model (Wynn Guditus 1984) and the Bass and Avolio Full Range Leadership model (Bass Avolio 1994). The later of which is gaining significant interest as the RAF goes through a period of change and transformation. The Functional Approach to Leadership is utilised by the lower echelons of the RAF. This practical model shows what it is that a leader should be doing. Few, if any, other models do this. The three circles of the Functional Approach vary in size (or importance) depending on circumstance, for example, the task can become overwhelmingly big on operations at times but at others if the team and Individual are not attended to and take precedence over the task, the people will be lost to the leader. Within the circles many other leadership models can be accommodated, such as transformational leadership, when a leader considers how to deal with task, team or individual.
Saturday, February 22, 2020
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